anatomy

Functional Anatomy – Thoracic Outlet

This is a short video walking through the structures from posterior to anterior followed by a more detailed document of the same structures. This post on the anatomy of the scalene muscles is worth reviewing for its information about the frequency and types of anomalies in those muscles. This video uses the convention throughout the …

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Scalene Muscles – Functional Anatomy

Scalenes are 3 (sometimes 4) muscles on either side of the neck. The 3 common bellies are name for their position; scalenus anterior, scalenus medius, scalenus posterior. The anomaly is called scalenus minimus.They are lateral cervical muscles that connect the cervical vertebrae to the upper thoracic cage. They are long muscles with fibers of uneven …

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Serratus Posterior Superior – Functional Anatomy

Serratus posterior superior attaches to C6-T3 and inserts on ribs 2-5, trapping the 2nd and 3rd thoracic vertebrae. There is a thin sheet of connective tissue that continues from the short bellies of the muscle on the rib to the supraspinous ligament over the spinous process. The width of this aponeurosis varies significantly among dissections …

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Serratus Posterior Inferior – Functional Anatomy

Serratus Posterior Inferior Serratus posterior inferior originates on T11-L2 and inserts on ribs 9-12, trapping the 9th and 10th thoracic vertebrae. There is a thin sheet of connective tissue that continues from the short bellies of the muscle on the rib to the supraspinous ligament over the spinous process. The width of this aponeurosis varies …

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Semispinalis Capitis – Functional Anatomy

Semispinalis Capitis Semispinalis Capitis connects the C4-T7 to the occipital bone trapping C1-C3. Dissection studies vary in their report of attachments on the thoracic vertebrae. They show that they not only vary in which vertebrae are attached but also that some slips attach to the transverse or spinous processes. Origin – transverse processes of C7-T6 or T7 and …

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Rectus Abdominus- Functional Anatomy

Rectus Abdominus Rectus abdominus connects the 5th, 6th and 7th rib to the pubic bone through the spine and sacrum. Origin – pubic crest, tubercle, and symphysis Insertion – ribs 5-7, (primarily rib 5) and the xiphoid process (when present) Function – flexion of the trunk, assists in exhalation The rectus abdominus is encased in the rectus …

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Quadratus Lumborum – Functional Anatomy

Quadratus lumborum, means “the square muscle in the low back.” It connects the lumbar vertebrae to the ribs and iliac crest trapping T12 and the sacrum its attachments. Quadratus Lumborum has 3 sections; iliolumbar, lumbocostal and lateral. They perform different functions, have different trigger point patterns and are best addressed as different muscles. Quadratus lumborum varies …

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Rotatores and Multifidi – Functional Anatomy

Multifidi and Rotatores Multifidi and rotatores form a thick band of muscles that fill the lamina groove. They connect the transverse process of a vertebra to the vertebrae above it. The shortest strand is the deepest. As the strands lengthen to span more vertebrae, they become more superficial. Multifidi and rotatores form a thick band of muscle that …

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