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Peroneus Longus – Functional Anatomy

Overview

Peroneus longus, also called fibularis longus, is a lateral low leg muscle. It wraps around the lateral foot attaches to the inferior surface.

Origin

  • head and proximal third of the lateral tibia

Insertion

  • base of the first metatarsal
  • medial cunieform

Function

  • eversion of the foot

Nerve

  • superficial fibular nerve, sacral plexus, (L4-S3)

Functional Considerations

Peroneus longus, along with peroneus brevis, and with some assistance from the tibialis posterior, evert the foot. This movement is a combination of plantarflexion while turning the plantar surface laterally.

Its position creates complexities in its functional roles.

  • This muscle, along with the tibialis anterior, creates a stirrup that supports the lateral arch of the foot.
  • It is key in mainatingin balance while on one foot.
  • The attachment on the base of the first metatarsal helps to stabilize and depress the great toe and stops the foot from cpollapsing medially.

Anomalies, Etc.

The upper attachment of this muscle often has a slip that attaches to the tibial condyle.

On the distal attachments, there are common variations in the tendonous slips. This study reports:

  • The base of 1st metatarsal: 30 specimens, 100%
  • Medial cuneiform: 26 specimens, 86.6%
  • The neck of 1st metatarsal: 3 specimens, 10%
  • The base of 2nd metatarsal: 6, 20%
  • The base of 4th metatarsal: 5, 16.6%
  • The base of 5th metatarsal: 7, 23.3%

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