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Lower Extremity Muscles

Gluteal and Lateral Hip Rotator Muscles – Functional Anatomy

Overview Gluteal muscles form the fullness of the hip. They originate on the pelvis and insert on the femur. The gluteus maximus also attaches to the tibia via the iliotibial band. Primarily, these muscles extend and abduct the hip joint. The lateral glutes are key in supporting the pelvis while the ipsilateral leg lifts and …

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Piriformis – Functional Anatomy

Overview Piriformis is the largest, muscle in the lateral hip rotator group. Also, it is the only lateral rotator that attaches to the sacrum. Origin medial margin of the greater sciatic notch anterior sacrum from the Level of S2-S4 superior portion of the sacrotuberous ligament Insertion superior greater trochanter Function lateral rotation of the femur …

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Obturator Externus – Functional Anatomy

Overview The obturator externus is a flat, triangular muscle that extends from the lower pelvis to the superior femur. The muscle has a superior belly and the main belly. Its name comes from its attachment to the external surface of the obturator foramen. Its counterpart, obturator internus, originates from the internal surface. It is usually …

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Gluteus Medius- Functional Anatomy

Gluteus medius is a fan-shaped muscle on the lateral hip. It overlays the gluteus minimus. The posterior portion lies under the gluteus maximus. Commonly, it has three sections that converge into a single insertion tendon. Origin lateral exterior surface of the ilium between the anterior and posterior gluteal lines Insertion superior, anterior aspect of the …

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Iliotibial Tract and Fascia Lata – Functional Anatomy

Fascia Lata The fascia lata is the deep fascia that wraps the outer thigh. This thick fascial envelope attaches superiorly to the crest of the Ilium and inguinal ligament. The fascia continues onto the pubic rami, ischial tuberosity, sacrotuberous ligament, coccyx and sacrum. Distally, it thickens as it attaches to the proximal tibia. It offers …

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