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Torso Muscles

Rhomboid Major and Minor Muscles – Functional Anatomy

Rhomboid Muscles The anatomy of the rhomboid major and minor seems straightforward. These muscles attach the upper thoracic and lower cervical vertebrae to the scapula. Consequently, these muscles trap the ribs, sternum, and clavicle between their attachments. Rhomboid Minor Origin the lower nuchal ligament, the supraspinous ligaments, and spinous processes along C7 and T1. Insertion the medial …

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Levator Scapula – Functional Anatomy

Overview of the Anatomy of Levator Scalupa. The Levator scapula is a ropy extrinsic back muscle that connects the scapula to the upper cervical vertebrae through the clavicle, manubrium, first rib, and lower cervical vertebrae. Levator scapula is stretched by Forward-Head Posture, elevating and protracting the scapula. Studies show that there are statistically significant variations …

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Extrinsic Chest Muscles – Functional Anatomy

The anatomy of the extrinsic chest muscles is more complicated than the first glance suggests. They originate on the front of the axial skeleton and insert on the upper extremity. Generally speaking, they protract the scapula and draw the humerus toward the midline. This arrangement gets a little more complicated with the pectoralis major. The …

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Subclavius- Functional Anatomy

The subclavius is a short, thick triangular muscle along the inferior aspect of the clavicle. Origin – first rib Insertion – medial clavicle. Function – lowers clavicle. The origin is a flat tendon that attaches on the first rib, near the sternal cartilage. It gradually transitions to muscle fibers. The insertion is a tendon that …

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Serratus Anterior – Functional Anatomy

Overview The serratus anterior has complex and variable anatomy. It is a broad, flat muscle with multiple bellies. It usually has eight sections, connecting the scapula’s vertebral border to each of the first eight ribs. Therefore, this structure makes it an extrinsic chest muscle. It is on the lateral trunk, under the scapula, extending like …

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Pectoralis Minor – Functional Anatomy

Pectoralis minor is a fan-shaped muscle in the front of the shoulder that secures the lateral angle of the scapula to the rib cage. Superficially, it is covered by the pectoralis major. Brief Anatomy Overview Origin ribs 3-5 Insertion coracoid process of the scapula Function protracts scapula depresses scapula Assists in labored breathing Innervation medial pectoral nerve …

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Pectoralis Major – Functional Anatomy

Dissection studies show that the pectoralis major varies dramatically. There are commonly 2-5 laminates, sometimes 6 or 7, and sometimes the entire pectoralis is missing (Poland Syndrome). Also, the overlap of sections varies among studies. The variation illustrated here is common and I used it because, well, it was fun to illustrate and shows how differently …

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Psoas Minor – Functional Anatomy

Overview The anatomy of the psoas minor muscle is highly variable. However, when it is present, it can be a significant bodywork concern. Origin bodies of T12-L1 via vertical fascicles Insertion the innominate line of the pubic bone. It connects to the iliac fascia, which connects it broadly to the arch of the pubic bone …

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Iliopsoas Complex – Functional Anatomy

The Iliopsoas Complex is a set of muscles on the back wall of the abdomen. They primarily flex the hip but also help with lateral flexion of the trunk. Many studies vary in their explanation of how they work, especially when they are trigger point laden. They seem to adjust tension based on many factors, …

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